Sleep Disorders May Lead To Stroke

Sleep disturbance is one of the most common complaints in patients who visit the doctor. Each year 20% -40% of adults has trouble sleeping and 17% had serious problems.

The prevalence of sleep disorders tends to increase every year, it is also in accordance with the increase in age and a variety of causes. Research shows that sleep disturbances increase the incidence of various diseases cardio serebro vascular. It is associated with impaired breathing during sleep (sleep disorder breathing.

Breathing disorders during sleep
There are two kinds of patterns of breathing disorders during sleep, which is Hypo apnea and Apnea. Hypo apnea which is narrowing of the airways characterized by 50% -80% for more than 10 seconds and a decrease in oxygen saturation of more than 3%.

While sleep apnea is characterized by narrowing of the airways more than 80% for more than 10 seconds and a decrease in oxygen saturation of more than 3%. There are three types of sleep apnea which is central sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea and upper airway form a mixture of both. Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder that occurs during sleep, which lasted for more than 10 seconds. It said if the pathological sleep apnea patients experience apnea at least five times in one hour or 30 apnea during the night. During these periodic the chest and abdominal wall movement is dominant. Central apnea often occurs in the elderly, which is characterized by intermittent respiration due to decreased ability decreased oxygen saturation. Central apnea is characterized by cessation of airflow and respiratory effort during sleep periodically, making movement of the chest and abdominal wall disappeared. Due to these possible damage to the brain stem or hypercapnia may happen.

Respiratory illness (upper airway apnea) during sleep is characterized by an increase in breathing during apnea, increased effort by the chest and abdominal wall muscles with the aim of forcing air in through the obstruction. This disorder is getting heavy when entering the REM phase. This respiratory disorder characterized by gasping breath or snoring during sleep.Snoring takes place 3-6 times and then disappears but repeated every 20-50 seconds. Apnea attacks when patients do not snore. Due to hypoxia or hipercapnea, causing more active respiration is activated by the reticular formation and the medullar respiratory center, but respiration is back to normal once the patient awakens. Either the central or obstructive apnea, patients often wake up repeatedly during the night, which is sometimes difficult to fall back to sleep. This disorder is often characterized by headache or feeling unwell in the morning. In children is often associated with congenital airway disorders. In an adult airway obstruction septal defect, hypothyroidism, or bradycardia, heart problems, hypertension, and stroke.

OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea) and stroke
Obstructive sleep disturbance is one of the risk factors of stroke. Study showed an increased risk of stroke of 2.52 times in patients with apnea sleep. It is also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in patients with OSA.

OSA is often found in people who have survived a stroke, as many as 63% of those who survive, have this disorder. Making more evidence that shown the existence of a causal link between apnea sleep and stroke.

Excessive tiredness during the day may be associated with sleep apnea and may affect the results of post-stroke recovery as excessive tiredness can reduce the ability and motivation to continue to run the stroke recovery program. As a result, training for recovery is not done regularly and properly, making the results not a satisfactory.

Overcoming or handle
Before looking for a diagnosis of the cause of a sleep disturbance, should be determined in advance the type and history of sleep disorders (duration of sleep disorder). Identifying the cause can also provide adequate treatment.

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